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Photorespiration occurs in c4 plants

Photorespiration is a wasteful pathway that occurs when the Calvin cycle enzyme rubisco acts on oxygen rather than carbon dioxide. The majority of plants are plants, which have no special features to combat photorespiration C 4 Plants Over 8,000 species of angiosperms have developed adaptations which minimize the losses to photorespiration. They all use a supplementary method of CO 2 uptake which forms a 4-carbon molecule instead of the two 3-carbon molecules of the Calvin cycle. Hence these plants are called C 4 plants

Photorespiration in C4 plants Photorespiration does not occur in C4 plants. This is because they have a mechanism which increases the CO2 concentration at the site of the enzyme. This happens when the mesophyll C4 acid is broken down in the bundle sheath cells to release CO2 this results in an increase in the intracellular CO2 concentration C 4 Plants do not undergo photorespiration because of PEP carboxylase, since it has high affinity for CO 2

In C4 plants photorespiration does not occur. This is because they have a mechanism that increases the concentration of CO2 at the enzyme site and due to the kranz anatomy. The mesophyll cells lacks RuBisCo enzyme. The malic acid from the mesophyll is broken down in the bundle sheath cells to release CO2.This results in increasing the intracellular concentration of CO2 In many plants, photorespiration is a problem because on a hot, dry day it can drain as much as 50% of the carbon fixed by the Calvin cycle YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE... 34 terms Biology Ch. 6 Photosynthesis C3, C4, and CAM Plants When does photorespiration occur? On hot and bright days. What happens to the stomates during photorespiration? They close, so that water cannot exit. In C4 plants, which cells does photosynthesis occur in? Photosynthesis occurs in 2 different types of cells:light reaction in mesophyll cells, Calvin cycle in bundle sheath cells.

1. C4 plants use 2 types of cells (mesophyll and bundle-sheath) and keep stomata slightly open during the day allowing some CO2 to enter. 2. CAM plants perform everything in their mesophyll cells but at different times of the day-- C4 pathway at night and C3 pathway during the day C4 plants can use the ATP produced under strong sunlight to promote the combination of PEP and CO2 to increase the photosynthetic rate under strong light and high temperatures. In drought, the stomatal aperture can be partially constricted to reduce transpiration water loss, and the photosynthetic rate can be reduced to a relatively small extent You can learn more about plant workarounds in the videos on C4 plants and CAM plants. Photorespiration wastes energy and steals carbon Photorespiration begins in the chloroplast, when rubisco attaches to RuBP in its oxygenase reaction

plants photorespiration does not accur because they have a mechanism that increases the concentration of C O2 at the enzyme site. This takes place when the C 4 acid from the mesophyll. is broken down in the bundle sheath cells to release C O C4 plants relocate the CO2 molecules to minimize photorespiration while CAM plants choose when to extract CO2 from the environment. Photorespiration is a process that occurs in plants where oxygen is added to RuBP instead of CO2. Likewise, how do c4 and CAM plants avoid Photorespiration Despite previous reports of no apparent photorespiration in C4 plants based on measurements of gas exchange under 2 versus 21% O2 at varying [CO2], photosynthesis in maize (Zea mays) shows a dual response to varying [O2]. The maximum rate of photosynthesis in maize is dependent on O2 (approximately 10%)

C3, C4, and CAM plants (article) Khan Academ

Because photorespiration occurs in all cells containing Rubisco, this consequently also requires an increase in the number of mitochondria. With regard to the complex trait of C 4 photosynthesis, at this point during evolution the tight venation was in place with a high likelihood of photosynthetically competent, organelle-containing bundle. Under these conditions, photorespiration does occur in C 4 plants, but at a much reduced level compared with C 3 plants in the same conditions. C 4 plants include sugar cane, corn (maize), and sorghum. CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) Overnight graph of CO 2 absorbed by a CAM plant The main difference between C4 and CAM plants is the way they minimize water loss. C4 plants relocate the CO2 molecules to minimize photorespiration while CAM plants choose when to extract CO2 from the environment. Photorespiration is a process that occurs in plants where oxygen is added to RuBP instead of CO2

Photorespiration is the undesirable process that occurs in plants that results in the fixation of O 2 2 instead of CO 2 2 onto ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate during the Calvin cycle. This occurs when.. 1. C4 plants flow C4 pathway or Hatch Slack pathway to overcome the problems due to photorespiration. CAM plants has Crassulacean Acid Metabolism pathway. Photosynthesis occurs in two phases: light reaction and dark reaction. Light reaction needs direct light and there is synthesis of ATP and NADPH C4 plants Photorespiration could be overcome if Rubisco could receive CO 2 more efficiently than by diffusion through the leaves. Various C4 plants, including grasses such as maize (corn) and bamboo, have evolved a bypass system for the delivery of CO 2 to Rubisco

27. 7/4/2021 Photorespiration 27 Photorespiration does not occur in C4 plants Photorespiration is absent in C4 plants, this is because Rubisco and other Calvin cycle enzymes are present only in Bundle Sheath cells and CO2 concentration in those cells is maintained too high for O2 to compete with CO2 Photorespiration is fundamentally inefficient due to the Rubisco enzyme acting on Oxygen instead of the desired Carbon Dioxide Most plants are non-tropical — C3 plants. Tropical plants — C4

16.2E: Photorespiration and C4 Plants - Biology LibreText

Photorespiration Occurs Only At Very Low Rates in C4 Plants Which Consequently Havel Lower Compensation Points & Greater Photo Synthetic Efficiency. Photorespiration Occurs. All Exam Results 2020 . Photorespiration is the Process in Which the Rubisco Binds With the Oxygen Instead Of Carbon Dioxide Due to the Increase In Its Concentration in the. However, some plants have evolved special ways of performing photosynthesis that prevent or limit photorespiration. C4 Photosynthesis is for Plants Adapted to Hot Environments In most photosynthesis, the first product of the Calvin cycle is a 3 carbon compound, so this type of photosynthesis is called C3 In C 4 plants photorespiration does not occur because they have a mechanism that increases the concentration of C O 2 at the enzyme site. This takes place when the C 4 acid from the mesophyll is broken down in the bundle sheath cells to release C O 2. This results in increasing the intracellular concentration of C O 2

Photorespiration in C3 and C4 Plants - Explanation and

These plants are called C4 plants, because the first product of carbon fixation is a 4-carbon compound (instead of a 3-carbon compound as in C3 or normal plants). C4 plants use this 4-carbon compound to effectively concentrate CO2 around rubisco, so that rubisco is less likely re react with O2. There are two important adaptations. Photorespiration occurs due to the oxygenase activity of RuBisCO. When the concentration of O2 is high, RuBisCO binds to oxygen and carries out photorespiration. C4 plants have a mechanism of maintaining high CO2 concentration at the enzyme site, thus photorespiration does not occur

Why does not photorespiration take place in C4 plants

26. Photorespiration occurs in (a) C3 plants (b) C4 plants (c) all plants (d) algae only. Answer: (b) C4 plants. 27. Carbon dioxide fixation during C4 pathway occurs in the chloroplast of (a) guard cells (b) mesophyll cells (c) spongy parenchyma (d) bundle sheath cells. Answer: (d) bundle sheath cells. 28. Structural component of chlorophyll. Photorespiration only occurs under high light intensities. It also requires high temperatures and high oxygen levels to occur. In C3 plants, if the intensity of light is high and O2 levels are high along with high temperature, photorespiration is likely to occur C4 plants largely bypass photorespiration by using an extension of the Calvin-Benson cycle to pump only CO 2, and not oxygen, into the bundle sheath cells where the RUBISCO reaction occurs. C4 plants can maintain a high, local concentration of CO 2 for RUBISCO activity without raising cellular oxygen levels

The c4 and CAM photosynthetic pathways limit the amount of photorespiration that occurs under hot dry conditions. C4 plants spatially separate their initial carbon fixation reaction from the rest of the Calvin Cycle. How do C4 plants accomplish this, both in terms of anatomical adaptations and biochemical reactions? CAM plants temporally. C4 plants minimize photorespiration by separating initial CO 2 fixation and the Calvin cycle in space, performing these steps in different cell types. This solution implies that the leaf anatomy is organized in specific cell compartments: the light-dependent reactions occur in the mesophyll cells (spongy tissue in the middle of the leaf) while.

Photorespiration occurs mainly in? A. CAM plants.. B. C3 plants. C. C4 plants. D. all of the answer choices. Which statement is NOT true about photosystems? A. Electrons are transferred along the membrane from Photosystem I to Photosystem II OB Kranz anatomy occurs in the chloroplast of C4 plants such as sugarcane, maize (Zea mays), sorghum etc. It has two types of photosynthetic cell arranged in a specific manner. These are bundle sheath cells that surround the vascular centres, and mesophyll cells that, in turn, surround the bundle sheath cells Photorespiration only occurs under high light intensities. It also requires high temperatures and high oxygen levels to occur. In C 4 plants, the process does not occur.; In C 3 plants, if the intensity of light is high and O 2 levels are high along with high temperature, photorespiration is likely to occur Photorespiration: wasteful pathway that occurs when the Calvin cycle enzyme rubisco acts on oxygen rather than carbon dioxide. ***C4 and CAM plants both use alternative methods for carbon fixation to prevent photorespiration and water loss. C4 plants CAM plants - Uses physical separation of carbon fixation and CO2 intake - First take in CO2 to. C4 plants—including maize, sugarcane, and sorghum—avoid photorespiration by using another enzyme called PEP during the first step of carbon fixation. This step takes place in the mesophyll cells that are located close to the stomata where carbon dioxide and oxygen enter the plant

Virtually all plants use energy from sunlight to convert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and sugars via a process called photosynthesis. This process has many steps that each rely on different enzymes to drive specific chemical reactions. Most plants use a pathway of enzymes that is referred to as C3 photosynthesis. Plants absorb carbon dioxide gas from the atmosphere How do plants exchange gasses with the environment? What part of their anatomy helps with it?.

Photorespiration is the chemical processes that occur within a living organism of phosphoglycolate that is produced during oxygenation catalyzed by the enzyme RubisCO and inhibits photosynthesis by interfering with CO2 fixation by RubisCO. Photorespiration is influenced by high temperature as well as light intensity and accelerating the. C4 plants have a higher photosynthetic capacity and efficiency relative to C3 plants (Edwards, 2019; Hennacy and Jonikas, 2020).The high efficiency is due to the presence of a CO 2-concentration mechanism, which operates by the physical partitioning of photosynthetic reactions between two distinct cell types: bundle sheath cells and mesophyll cells. . The Rubisco-rich bundle-sheath cells form.

Why photorespiratisn does not occur in C4 plant ? from

  1. Abstract. C 4 plants evolved independently more than 60 times from C 3 ancestors. C 4 photosynthesis is a complex trait and its evolution from the ancestral C 3 photosynthetic pathway involved the modification of the leaf anatomy and the leaf physiology accompanied by changes in the expression of thousands of genes. Under high temperature, high light, and the current CO 2 concentration in the.
  2. Photorespiration occurs when ____ is used in the Calvin Cycle instead of Carbon Dioxide gas. PhotoRespiration DRAFT. 10th - 12th grade. 27 times. Biology. 80% average accuracy. 6 months ago. mr_ackert. 0. CAM and C4 Plants each prevent Photorespiration by... answer choice
  3. C4 plants have double the water-use efficiency of C3 plants because photosynthesis can operate at low intercellular concentrations of CO 2, and hence at lower stomatal conductances. Nitrogen-use efficiency is also improved because Rubisco is used more efficiently, due to the suppression of photorespiration

Photorespiration, C3, C4 and CAM Flashcards Quizle

Photorespiration occurs in C3 plants because some oxygen is likely to bind with RuBisCo during photosynthesis but C4 plants with its special leaf anatomy have evolved to overcome this process. In C3 plants photorespiration is pronounced especially during dry conditions and in high temperatures when the concentration of carbon dioxide is lowered. C4 plants attract a lot of attention because under certain environmental conditions they produce higher yields than C3 plants do because the C4 plants don't photorespire. Explain why C4 plants do not experience photorespiration. Plastids Types of plastids; their similarities and difference Photorespiration rates in tissue cultures of a C4 plant, Portulaca oleracea, were compared to those in tissue cultures of a C3 plant, Streptanthus tortuosus. The C4 plant tissue cultures have one-half to one-third the photorespiration rate of the C3 plant tissue cultures and respond to varying 02 concentrations in a manner typical of C4 plants Photorespiration 1. Photorespiration 2. Photorespiration occurs when the CO2 levels inside a leaf become low. This happens on hot dry days On hot dry days the plant is forced to close its stomata to prevent excess water loss. The plant continues fix CO2 when its stomata are closed, the CO2 will get used up and the O2 ratio in the leaf will increase relative to CO2 concentrations

PPT - PHOTORESPIRATION PowerPoint Presentation, freeBasic Biochemistry | Digitális Tankönyvtár

Photorespiration Flashcards Quizle

  1. These plants suffer significantly with no water and excessive heat and large amounts of photorespiration will lead to low yields, plant damage, and eventually death. Examples of C3 plants are.
  2. In plants, photorespiration is a process that only happens under higher light intensities. Also known as C2 photosynthesis, this process refers to a wasteful pathway that happens when the plant's Calvin cycle processes oxygen instead of carbon dioxide. This process of respiration occurs only in light and is normally initiated in the plant's.
  3. A C4 plant is a plant that cycles carbon dioxide into four-carbon sugar compounds to enter into the Calvin cycle. Photorespiration is a phenomenon that occurs in the cycle (a) Pyruvate (b) Glycolate (c) Hill (d) Krebs Answer: (b) Glycolate 2. Home MCQs Plant physiology MCQs 1. a) Grana
  4. Photosynthesis and photorespiration are two processes that occur in plants. However, photosynthesis is an important process while photorespiration is a wasteful process. Some of the energy and fixed carbon are wasted by the photorespiration by the enzyme called RuBP oxygenase-carboxylase
  5. Contrary to the process of Normal respiration, photorespiration does not produce any ATP. In C3 plants, this process has been shown to lower the overall rate of photosynthesis. On the other hand, in C4 plants, photorespiration has quite a negligible effect. The end products of photorespiration are CO2 and PGA
  6. Why C4 plants are more efficient? C 4 plants are more efficient than C 3 due to their high rate of photosynthesis and reduced rate of photorespiration. The main enzyme of carbon fixation (Calvin cycle) is RuBisCO, i.e. ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase. Do C4 plants use RuBisCO

BIO1510 CH 8 Photosynthesis Flashcards Quizle

  1. antly occurs in C4 plants while photorespiration predo
  2. Study C3, C4, CAM, Photorespiration, Leaf Anatomy flashcards from Gail I's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. Learn faster with spaced repetition
  3. What is photorespiration? Photorespiration is the last photosynthesis process; it is based on oxygen use to produce carbon dioxide: the plant consumes the energy generated during the previous photosynthesis stages.. Photosynthesis and photorespiration. Photosynthesis is aimed at converting solar energy into organic components rich in energy and storing them; for that, the plants absorb carbon.
  4. Photorespiration is the process by which RuBP, (a sugar) has oxygen added to it by the the main enzyme involved in photosynthesis, rubisco, instead of carbon dioxide as happens during photosynthesis. Rubisco favours carbon... Full article >>> photorespiration n. Oxidation of carbohydrates in plants with the release of carbon dioxide during 3 Minimization of photorespiration (C4 and CAM.
Cal Poly BIO 502: Photosynthesis and Climate Change

Compared to C3 plants, C4 plants _____

photorespiration In C3 plants, respiration rates increase photosynthesis The biochemical process by which green plants and some bacteria capture light energy and use it to produce chemical bonds. Carbon dioxide and water are consumed while oxygen and simple sugars are produced. ~ is minimal in C4 plants compared to C3 plants. The Biology Projec C3, C4 and Cam pathway are the adaptations that permit several plant species to lessen photorespiration in them. These pathways function in a way such that RuBisCO grabs large concentrations of carbon dioxide and prevents it from binding with oxygen

Photorespiration (article) Photosynthesis Khan Academ

  1. Select all that apply.A) Carbon dioxide in the air spaces of the leaf would decrease.B) Oxygen in the air spaces would increase.C) The amount of water within the air spaces would decrease.D) Photorespiration would increase in C3 plants.E) Photorespiration would increase in CAM plants
  2. (1) Photorespiration is useful process. (2) C4 plants are more efficient than C3 plants. (3) C4 plants are less efficient than C3 plants. (4) Photorespiration is absent in C3 plants but present in C4 plants
  3. ation f and e, respectively, n+1.
  4. Photorespiration; C4 Plants; CAM Plants; C4 Diatoms; Contributors and Attributions; All plants carry on photosynthesis by adding carbon dioxide (CO 2) to a phosphorylated 5-carbon sugar called ribulose bisphosphate.This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RUBISCO).The resulting 6-carbon compound breaks down into two molecules of 3-phosphoglyceric.
  5. Does Photorespiration occur in c4 plants? Photorespiration occurs due to the oxygenase activity of RuBisCO. When the concentration of O 2 is high, RuBisCO binds to oxygen and carries out photorespiration. C 4 plants have a mechanism of maintaining high CO 2 concentration at the enzyme site,.
  6. imize photorespiration? a. Stomata are only opened at night, storing oxygen in malate. During the day the oxygen is released for photosynthesis.b. The light reactions and carbon reactions occur in different cells, so carbon dioxide does not come into contact with rubisco.c. Stomata are only opened at night, storing carbon dioxide in malate
  7. g discussion will update you about the difference between c3 plants and c4 plants. Difference # C3 Plants: 1. CO2 acceptor is RuBP (Ribulose bisphosphate). 2. Only one type of chloroplasts occur in the cells. Grana present in chloroplasts. ADVERTISEMENTS: 3. First stable compound after CO2 fixation is PGA. 4. Plants photosynthesize [

In C4 plants, photo respiration does not occur

C4 plants have a special type of anatomy in leaves to avoid photorespiration. asked 3 days ago in Photosynthesis in Higher Plants by Zain01 ( 25.8k points) class-1 Rubisco carboxylase activity. Since photorespiration is a temperature- and CO2-dependent process (Brooks and Farquhar, 1985), photosynthesis is higher in C4 than C3 plants at high temperature and low pCO2. C4 plants accomplish this via (i) a biochemical CO2-pump that involves Phospho-enol Figure 1 Diagrammatic representation of the C4 photosynthetic pathway as it occurs in plants of the NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME) subtype. All C4 species initiate the CO2-concentration process by converting CO2 to bicarbonate using carbonic anhydrase (CA). The cytosolic enzyme PEP carboxylase (PEPC) fixes the bicarbonate to PEP, forming a four-carbon organic acid, oxaloacetic acid (OAA) So C4 is only cost effective for plants in an environment where photorespiration could be so great as to be detrimental. 1965: Kortschack, Hartt, and Burr repeated the experiments done by Calvin's group, using sugar cane as the experimental organism The answer to this (didactic) question is the C4 pathway (as described in full in that text), but the answer to the question posted here is that tropical plants employ the C4 pathway because of this increased wastage of energy through photorespiration at the higher temperatures in which they live.. Share. Improve this answer

Paving the Way for C4 Evolution: Study of C3-C4

How does photosynthesis work in c4 and CAM plants

C photosynthesis is one of the most convergent evolutionary phenomena in the biological world, with at least 66 independent origins. Evidence from these lineages consistently indicates that the C pathway is the end result of a series of evolutionary modifications to recover photorespired CO in environments where RuBisCO oxygenation is high. Phylogenetically informed research indicates that the. In C4 plants, photorespiration does not occur. They have a mechanism that increases the concentration of CO 2 at the enzyme site. This takes place when the C 4 acid from the mesophyll is broken down in the bundle cells to release CO 2 this results in increasing the intracellular concentration of CO 2 Photorespiration is a biochemical process in plants in which, especially under conditions of water stress, oxygen inhibits the Calvin cycle, the carbon fixation portion of photosynthesis. Photorespiration results in the light-dependent uptake of oxygen and release of carbon dioxide and is associated with the synthesis and metabolism of a small molecule called glycolate VI. C4 Photosynthesis, or, How maize avoids photorespiration Plants that avoid photorespiration have a unique modification of photosynthesis. They are called C4 plants because the first product of carbon dioxide fixation is a 4-carbon compound, not PGA as it is in C3 plants. Examples: There are many plants that have this specialized modification

List of C4 plants - Wikipedia

C4 Photosynthesis (The CO2-Concentrating Mechanism and

In hot and dry environments and under low atmospheric CO 2 conditions, when the oxygenation activity of Rubisco is increased, the high rate of photorespiration becomes unfavorable for the plants (Sage, 2001, 2013).C 4 plants possess a mechanism that minimizes the oxygenase function of Rubisco and thereby reduces photorespiration and decreases the loss of carbon Minimization of Photorespiration (C4 and CAM Plants): Since photorespiration requires additional energy from the light reactions of photosynthesis, some plants have mechanisms to reduce uptake of molecular oxygen by Rubisco. They increase the concentration of CO 2 in the leaves so that Rubisco is less likely to produce glycolate through reaction with O 2

Systems of Photosynthesi

The photorespiration is not universally present in all plants; rather it usually occurs in C3 plants. The process of photorespiration is essentially absent in C4 plants. The present post discusses the similarities and differences between photorespiration and normal respiration with a comparison table et al. 1969, Krenzer et al. 1975). Plants with C3-C4 intermediate characteristics exhibit intermediate values (Table 1), suggesting lower rates of photorespira-tion relative to C3 plants, yet higher rates relative to C4 plants. 02 Inhibition of Photosynthesis in Ca3 Plants CO2 loss through photorespiration represents only one of the metaboli Therefore, C4 plants have a higher concentration of CO 2 where the Calvin cycle occurs than do C3 plants. This not only allows C4 plants to prevent water loss better than C3 plants by allowing the stomata to be closed more often, but it also prevents high rates of photorespiration In C4 plants photorespiration does not occur. This is because they have a mechanism that increases the concentration of CO2 at the enzyme site. This takes place when the C4 acid from the mesophyll is broken down in the bundle sheath cells to release CO2 - this results in increasing the intracellular concentration of CO2

c3 & c4 PhotosynthesisComparative genomic analysis of C4 photosynthetic pathwayAP Bio Blog - 2012: 5 Pictures for Scavenger Hunt

The C3 plant photorespiration occur? Why does the C4 plant

When it is hot, plants close their stomata to conserve water They continue to do photosynthesis use up CO2 and produce O2 creates high O2 concentrations inside the plant photorespiration occurs C4 Photosynthesis Certain plants have developed ways to limit the amount of photorespiration C4 Pathway* CAM Pathway* * Both convert CO2 into a 4 carbon. C4 plants can maintain high rates of photosynthesis with less stomatal opening than C3 plants. • Water-use efficiency? C4 plants >> C3 plants (3x higher) C4 photosynthesis - increases WUE • C4 plants occur in hot, dry environments, where photosynthetic water-use efficiency is at a premium. • C4 evolved about 15mya when CO2 levels dropped Select all that apply.A) C4 plants store carbon dioxide temporarily as oxaloacetate.B) C4 plants are found in hot, dry climates.C) C4 plants have a net photosynthetic rate two or three times greater than C3 plants.D) C4 plants experience more photorespiration than C3 plants.E) C4 plants separate carbon fixation from the Calvin cycle Photorespiration is a respiratory process in many higher plants. This is also known as the oxidative photosynthetic, or C2 photosynthesis or carbon cycle. Photorespiration is a wasteful pathway that occurs when the Calvin cycle enzyme rubisco acts on oxygen rather than carbon dioxide

In the C4-plants, C4-cycle occurs in the mesophyll cells and C3-cycle occurs in bundle sheath cells, whereas in CAM plants Reason Photorespiration is suppressed in C4-plants. 84. Assertion The atmospheric concentration of C02 at which photosynthesis just compensates for respiration is referred to as C02 compensation point C3 & C4 Photosynthesis- Kranz Anatomy. C3- Bromuscatharticus. C4- Aristida. purpurea. At 86° F C4 becomes more efficient than C3 due to photorespiration. The starch rich chloroplasts of the Kranz anatomy lack grana, the site of the light reactions. They differ from the chloroplasts of the outer bundle sheath (dimorphic chloroplasts) Photorespiration is a light-stimulated oxidation of photosynthesis intermediates to CO2. This process occurs primarily in higher plants which fix CO2 via the C3 pathway of photosynthesis (Calvin cycle). The details of the mechanism of photorespiration are controversial, but glycolic acid metabolism is thought to be involved. Photorespiration appears to be a wasteful process, and net. C4 Cycle (Or Hatch and Slack Cycle) The C 4 plants are generally found in the tropical and subtropical regions and they have evolved C 4 pathway as a mechanism to avoid the occurrence of photorespiration, which is considered a wasteful process. All those plants which exhibit C 4 pathway of photosynthesis are called C 4 plants, e. g. Zea maize (maize) , Saccharum (sugar cane) , Amaranthus.

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