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# Rolling force calculation

### Plant Engineering Calculating proper rolling resistance

• d that at start-up the force will be 2 to 2.5 times higher). Use a safety factor when calculating required power for drive applications. Remember to account for any slope present (a°). The calculated rolling resistancewill increase up the slope and decrease down the slope (F = Fx/cosa)
• The force that resists the motion of a body rolling on a surface is called the rolling resistance or the rolling friction. The rolling resistance can be expressed by the generic equation Fr = c W (1
• - Calculate roll separation force (rolling force) and torque - Processing Limits - Calculate rolling power. Prof. Ramesh Singh, Notes by Dr. Singh/ Dr. Colton 13 Flat Rolling Analysis • Consider rolling of a flat plate in a 2-high rolling mil

### Rolling Resistance - Engineering ToolBo

The Calculation of Roll Force and Torque in Hot Rolling Mills R. B. Sims, B.Sc. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers 1954 168 : 1 , 191-20 Rolling friction is also called as the rolling resistance or rolling drag. It is the frictional force which opposes the movement of an article which is moving through a surface. Code to add this calci to your website. Just copy and paste the below code to your webpage where you want to display this calculator

Pr is the radial force, with a vertical component P(rolling load -the load with which the rolls press against the metal). The specific roll pressure , p, is the rolling Example: Calculate the rolling load if steel sheet is hot rolled 30% from a 40 mm-thick slab using a 900 mm-diameter roll. The slab is 760 mm wide where p is the displacement of N with respect to the action line of W p depends essentially on three factors: (i) the elastic properties of the rolling body, (ii) its radius and (iii) the effective load that the tyre bears. Because the torque opposes the tyre rotation, it is referred to as rolling friction and i

For a car that accelerates the acceleration force must be added to the total force. Example - Car and required Engine Power The required engine power for a car driving on a flat surface with constant speed 90 km/h with an aerodynamic resistance force 250 N and rolling resistance force 400 N and overall efficiency 0.85 - can be calculated a Rolling Resistance Equation and Calculator. Mechanics And Machine Engineering and Design. Rolling Resistance Equation and Calculator: The resistance of a vehicle forward motion is the sum of rolling resistance, gradient force and aerodynamic drag. Symbols used: C r = coefficient of rolling resistance m = mass of vehicle p = tire pressure (bars Wheel rolling radius or static loaded radius is taken as input for tire rolling circumference calculation. The rolling circumference (RC), in turns, is further considered as input in various vehicle dynamics calculation like traction force calculation and grade ability calculation.The formula used here is quite simple In this paper the concentration is given to the calculation of rolling load and the forces acting on the gears of steel rolling machine. After that power and torque required is calculated for the rolling load and the gear forces simultaneously which is further useful for designing and analysis the gear used in gearbox of hot rolling machine There are three laws of rolling friction: With the increase in smoothness, the force of rolling friction decreases. Rolling friction is expressed as a product of load and constant to the fractional power. F = kL

### The Calculation of Roll Force and Torque in Hot Rolling

• The general parametrical rolling resistance equation can relatively well estimate the rolling resistance force for all car tires. Comparison to measurement, show a good agreement. This parametrical rolling resistance equation can be used as input in tire models like PAC2002 or other
• The calculation accuracy of the rolling force directly affects the setting accuracy of the rolling schedule; besides, it is the key to make full use of the regulatory capacity of the thickness and shape control system and the key to improve the hit rate of the steel head
• The Mill Load application is specifically developed for mill design/operation engineers to calculate roll separating force, rolling torque and power, etc. Typically, load calculation is needed for an existing mill when a new rolling process is applied either with higher reduction or in lower temperature or higher speed, or for a stronger material
• The torque is obtained by integrating the frictional force multiplied by roll radius over the arc of contact (lagging and leading zones). The negative sign before the second term is due to the fact that in leading zone the metal moves faster than the rolls hence it helps to rotate the rolls
• imizing the total power which contain the internal plastic power, frictional power, shear power and tense power
• Calculating rolling resistance. This equation is used to calculate the force of rolling resistance from each tyre: F RR = C RR x weight. F RR is the rolling resistance force.; C RR is the coefficient of rolling resistance (a number used to rate each tyre at a given pressure),; weight is the force due to gravity being exerted on each tyre (= mass (kilograms) x 9.8)

### Rolling Friction / Resistance Calculato

1. g rolling force of elastic and plastic deformation zones. In addition, the suitable mathematic models of friction coefficient and strip deformation resistance were also established
2. Force Equation. F = m a. Newton's second law states that force is proportional to what is required for an object of constant mass to change its velocity. This is equal to that object's mass multiplied by its acceleration. We use Newtons, kilograms, and meters per second squared as our default units, although any appropriate units for mass.
3. imum elemen
4. For cold rolling process, the theoretical Bland-Ford-Hill model and Hitchcock model are used for the rolling force and roll flatten radius calculation. Friction coefficient and deformation resistance are calculated with empirical regression models. From rolling force model, the recalculation model for the friction coefficient and deformation resistance can be derived
5. g equipment to roll sheet metal into cylindrical, arc and other general shapes of the workpiece. It has been widely used in boiler, shipbuilding, petroleum, chemical industry, metal structure and mechanical manufacturing industry
6. For the design calculation of the roll bending machine, the force analysis of the rolling machine is required first, and the result is the original parameters of the design of each part of the rolling machine

Rolling resistance, sometimes called rolling friction or rolling drag, is the force resisting the motion when a body (such as a ball, tire, or wheel) rolls on a surface.It is mainly caused by non-elastic effects; that is, not all the energy needed for deformation (or movement) of the wheel, roadbed, etc., is recovered when the pressure is removed. Two forms of this are hysteresis losses (see. Rolling Resistance Force Equations and Calculator. Power Transmission Design and Engineering Engineering and Design Applications. Rolling Resistance Force of Vehicle Between Tire and Contacting Surface. A vehicle can move along only if the sum of all resistances is overcome

Note: steel wheels (like on trains) have less rolling resistance, but are way too slippery on the road! Calculations. Force is a vector. A vector has magnitude (size) and direction: We can model the forces by drawing arrows of the correct size and direction. Like this Understanding the forces and torques involved in rolling motion is a crucial factor in many different types of situations. For analyzing rolling motion in this chapter, refer to Figure 10.5.4 in Fixed-Axis Rotation to find moments of inertia of some common geometrical objects. You may also find it useful in other calculations involving rotation A wheel rolling over a surface has both a linear and a rotational velocity. Suppose the angular velocity of the wheel is [omega]. A particle with mass m moves in the x-y plane (see Figure 12.7). A single force F acts on the particle and the angle between the force and the position vector is [phi]. Per definition, the torque exerted by this. model of rolling force during rolling of bimetallic rods. Re-sults of calculation by analytical model are compared with results of FEM model and experimental data. Therefore, the present study has derived theoretical for-mulae that enable the calculation of the overall roll sepa-rating force during the rolling of the bimetallic rods in th Rolling processes 5-1 introduction: Rolling is the process of reducing the thickness or changing the cross section of a long workpiece by compressive forces applied through a set of rolls, as shown in figure (5-1). Fig. (5-1) Most rolling is carried out by hot working, called hot rolling, owing to the large amount of deformation required

### Rolling Resistance Equation and Calculator Engineers

2.3 Rolling Force 75 2.3.1 Direction of forces in simple rolling 75 2.3.2 Determination of roll separating force 78 2.3.3 Formulae for calculation of mean rolling pressure 93 2.4 Rolling Torque and Power 98 2.4.1 Lever arm method 98 2.4.2 Rolling power calculation 101 3. Rolling Practices 104 3.1 Layout of Stands 10 3. Acceleration force 3 CALCULATING THE ROLLING RESISTANCE Rolling Resistance is the opposing force that the vehicle has to overcome due to the rolling motion between the wheels and the surface of motion of the vehicle. The rolling resistance depends on the co-efficient of rolling friction which varie A 7 period moving/rolling window of 7 data points can be used to smooth out regular daily fluctuations, such as low sales mid-week and high sales Fri and Sat. The 7 period rolling average would be plotted in the mid-week slot, starting at the 4th slot of seven, not the eight. Thereafter all would be the same Calculation of Roll Force in Cold Rolling from the Mean Resistance to Deformation [15, 31] 4.4.5. Calculation of Roll Force in Cold Rolling of Strip with Applied Front and Back Tension 4.4.6. Bland, Ford and Ellis's Graphical Method for Calculation of Roll Force 4.4.7. Trinks's Graphical Method for Determination of Roll Force in Keller's For

Crr: Coefficient of rolling resistance (rolling drag). A value of 0.006 to 0.010 represents \low rolling resistance tires on a smooth surface; 0.010 to 0.015 represents ordinary car tires on concrete (see Wikipedia for other sample values). You can also calculate your CRR experimentally. Cd: Coefficient of drag Flat Rolling • Initial thickness h o • Final thickness h f • Roll gap L • Surface speed of rolls V r Calculate the roll force and the power required. For annealed copper, it has a true stress of about 80 Mpa in the unstrained condition and at a true strain of 0.223, true stress is 280 Mpa. FOUR HIGH ROLLING MILL

To analyze rolling without slipping, we first derive the linear variables of velocity and acceleration of the center of mass of the wheel in terms of the angular variables that describe the wheel's motion. The situation is shown in (Figure). Figure 11.3 (a) A wheel is pulled across a horizontal surface by a force. - Wear and Rolling Contact Fatigue • Part 3 with a vertical force Fand zero Example calculation: Average and Peak Pressure 57 • Let's assume a circular contact patch, with a radius of 0.28 (7 mm) • The contact area is then: 0.24 in.

From the formula for the traction force, we can calculate the force at each speed level for zero vehicle acceleration. Those points make a force/speed curve of this car. When the speed is close to zero, then the traction force is used to overcome the rolling resistance force Tire rolling resistance F RR. The force due to rolling resistance is a function of many factors such as tire design, inflation pressure, vehicle weight, and speed. The primary mechanism behind rolling resistance is the deformation of the tire as it rolls under the weight it supports, and the friction of contact with the road surface This Demonstration on the manufacturing process of flat rolling shows how roll radius, friction, and plate thickness determine the maximum change in plate thickness that can be achieved in a single pass through the rollers (maximum draft). It also calculates the force that has to be exerted by the rollers on the metal plate to achieve this draft

### (PDF) Methodology for Calculation of Rolling Load and

Again, complete the calculations, and you'll discover that the tractive effort -- or gross pulling force -- of the vehicle is 2,667 pounds. To find the net drawbar pull, subtract the rolling resistance from the tractive effort. In this case, the drawbar pull of our example vehicle is 2,547 pounds Rolling At Constant Speed The fact that the cylinder tends to slow down means that it takes a constant force to overcome rolling resistance and keep the cylinder rolling at a constant speed. We can find an expression for this force. Let's call this force F and solve for it using the same basic procedure as before. The set up is illustrated in. Tires have a RRC (or rolling resistance coefficient), typically about 0.01 (or 1%). This simply means that if you have a 1600 Kg mass vehicle with 4 tires, each tire is pressing on the roadway with a downward force of 400 x 9.81 = 3900 Newtons. Thus the minimum horizontal force to push the car is Rolling friction is the resistive force offered by any surface which opposes the rolling motion of any object that rolls over it, thus causing it to slow down and eventually stop. Rolling friction occurs when a spherical or round object rolls across a surface. Rolling friction is also sometimes called rolling drag or rolling resistance A simplified method to calculate the rolling force in hot rolling. Si Li 1, Zhigang Wang 1, Changming Liu 1, Jinhua Ruan 1 & Zengbing Xu 1 The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology volume 88, pages 2053-2059 (2017)Cite this articl

### Rolling Friction - Definition, Examples, Coefficient

1. Rolling 3 Months (r3m from Current Month) Rolling 6 Months (r6m from Current Month) Rolling 12 Months (r12m from Current Month) Year To Date (ytd) Last Twelve Months (ltm from Current Month) Can anyone help me on how to get this to work? I tried finding answer's online but not able to see anything relative to what I am trying to achieve
2. Roll force, torque, temperature CVC, HS, position bending Coil-data Operator-trims Scheduling 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 Log deformation Yield stress 3542 Rolling mill applications covered by ABB include: Single and multistand Mills Cluster and Sendzimir*) Mills Inline and continuous rolling mills Reversing and non-reversin
3. For a car that accelerates the acceleration force must be added to the total force. Example - Car and required Engine Power. The required engine power for a car driving on a flat surface with constant speed 90 km/h with an aerodynamic resistance force 250 N and rolling resistance force 400 N and overall efficiency 0.85 - can be calculated a
4. There is shear effect in thick plate rolling, but it is negligible in strip rolling process.7 Finite element method8 serves as an indispensable tool for rolling force prediction, but its calculation cost is unbearable for online use.9 Karman equation10 remains to be one of the most welcomed roll force models. Le an
5. es thickness precision, strip shape quality and rolling stability , .Therefore, the online calculation model of roll force with high accuracy is taken as the core for substantial studies at home and abroad , ..

DOI: 10.3901/JME.2017.10.010 Corpus ID: 114207493. Research on Cast-rolling Force Calculation Model in Solid-liquid Cast-rolling Bonding (SLCRB) Process of Bimetallic Clad Pip Rolling force is the most important technical parameter for the tandem cold mill. In this paper, the precise models and calculation process for the rolling force are introduced. The rolling force model is based on the Bland-Ford and Hill theory, and the roll flatten radius is calculated with the Hitchcok's formula. The deformation resistance of the strip is calculated with the model, whose.

### Calculating Rolling Resistance with a Parametrical Equatio

Rolling Resistance (RR) The other major vehicle resistance force on level ground is the rolling resistance of the tires. At low speeds on hard pavement, the rolling resistance is the primary motion resistance force. In fact, aerodynamic resistance becomes equal to the rolling resistance only at speeds of 50-60 mph (80-100 km/h) Using the impact force calculator. This versatile impact force calculator is useful for estimating the impact forces involved in collisions of different kinds. For example, it can be used to calculate the impact force of a vehicle (car, truck, train), plane, football, of birds hitting a plane or wind mill, as well as for falling bodies that crash into the ground

### Rolling Force Prediction in Heavy Plate Rolling Based on

1. ed by following formula according to geometric relationship: In above formula: Da - Upper roll.
2. Tractive force or tractive effort or traction is the force applied between the tire and road surface to move a car or any vehicle for that matter. The maximum permissible traction force that can be applied to the wheels is governed by two things: the weight of the vehicle and the adhesion coefficient between the tire and the road surface
3. Free Fall with Air Resistance Calculator. Friction Calculator. Gear Ratio Calculator. Gravitational Force Calculator. Hooke's Law Calculator. Horizontal Projectile Motion Calculator. Rocket Equation Calculator. Impulse and Momentum Calculator
4. g the wheel and surface at the point of contact. Static friction is required to get the wheel to rotate, so as long as the rolling resistance is.
5. Roll force can be derived from these measurements, but due to outside influences, these calculated results can never be as accurate as direct load cell force measurement. However, there are applications in which strain gage extensometers can provide useful rolling information, and in such cases KELK can provide extensometers that are superior.

Coefficient of Rolling Friction. by Ron Kurtus (20 November 2016) The coefficient of rolling friction is the indication of how great the rolling resistance is for a given normal force between the wheel and the surface upon which it is rolling. This ratio is based on the Standard Friction Equation. Because of the various factors, the coefficient of rolling friction is usually determined. 1. calculate free rolling first and integrate the angular velocity 2. then calculate drive torque ( the engine torque ) and Integrate angular velocity again. 3. then, based on wheel movement ( velocity ) and current angular velocity i calculate the SlipRatio and SlipAngle and based on them calculate road friction force and integrate angular. The frictional force is equal to the coefficient of friction * the normal force. I can easily find the normal force by multiplying the mass times 9.8 m/s^2, but nowhere does the problem state the coefficient of friction. Aside from that, a rolling object isn't affected by the frictional force Example: Calculate the rolling load if steel sheet is hot rolled 30% from a 40 mm-thick slab using a 900 mm-diameter roll. The slab is 760 mm wide. Assume μ = 0.30. The plane-strain flow stress is 140 MPa at entrance and 200 MPa at the exit from the roll gap due to the increasing velocity. The rolling load or total force P is the integral.

### Mill load - roll force, torque, power during steel rollin

The rolling process always began with the crucial operation of pre bending both ends of the sheet. This operation After performing actual experiment force calculation and fem analysis on metal sheet at different materials, we conclude that the force which required for bending the sheet is found by virtually it is tested in terms of factor. Rolling Resistance- the force needed to keep a rolling vehicle moving at a constant speed: Once any vehicle starts moving, it takes a lot less force (energy) to keep it moving at the same rate, than what it required to start it moving in the first place

### How to Obtain Rolling Torque? Metals Metallurg

Bearing calculation Extract from the Railway technical handbook, volume 1, chapter 5, page 106 to 121 • static axleload G00 in tons and expressed as a force in kN effects like rolling and pitch as well as dynamic effects from the wheel rail contact The rolling force, interroll force, work roll deflection, backup roll deflection, interroll flattening, and work roll-strip flattening are all expressed by vectors as in . There are seven equations for elastic deformation calculation of four-high rolling mill including four deformation equations, one force balancing equation, and two. 5. For the rolling of the body the calculation of the moment of the force about the axis of rolling, the cross product ta ble, i.e. the 3X3 matrix which is made for doing the cross product having 3 rows, contains three elements. Which are they from top to bottom? a) Axis coordinates, point coordinates, and the force coordinates b) Point coordinates, axis coordinates, and the force coordinates.

### A novel approach for the rolling force calculation of cold

Calculate the static friction force associated with rolling motion without slipping Use energy conservation to analyze rolling motion Rolling motion is that common combination of rotational and translational motion that we see everywhere, every day The Calculation of Roll Force and Torque in Hot Rolling Mills. Equations are derived for the normal roll pressure, specific roll load and torque in hot rolling mills, using the condition for plastic deformation in rolling derived by Orowan, together with von K.. 12. Rolling, Torque, and Angular Momentum Rolling Motion: • A motion that is a combination of rotational and translational motion, e.g. a wheel rolling down the road. • Will only consider rolling with out slipping. For a disk or sphere rolling along a horizontal surface, the motion can be considered in two ways You need to calculate the circumference of the mean diameter of the ring you are rolling. Example: If you are rolling a ring with a 12 inch od out of .25 inch thick material, the mean diameter of the ring will be 11.75 inches. The length of the material will then be 11.75 x pi or 36.9137 inches Rolling on Inclined Plane. Calculation of duration and velocity of an object rolling down a slope ( inclined plane ). Friction is neglected. The velocity is the speed of the object at the length l. Example: at a length of 10 and a height of 5 meters, the angle of slope is 30°, the velocity of a ball is 7.3824 m/s and the time to get there is 2.

Calculation of roll force is important because calculation of torque and power in a rolling mill is based on calculation of roll force. Accurate prediction of roll force for grooved rolling is considerably more difficult than predicting the geometry of the rolling stock. There are essentially three problems, present during the rolling as well. Rolling Loads- Rolling loads are those loads which roll over the given structural element from one end to the another. You can see many live examples of rolling loads, like a train on the railway track, vehicles on the bridges or roads are rolling loads. Maximum negative shear force is induced when the udl is on the left part of the span. elastic properties where the shearing force is in a longitudinal-transverse plane and perpendicular to the grain--rolling shear (in rotary-cut plywood, shearing in the tangential plane and perpendicular to the grain). A standardized method for evaluating the rolling shear properties of wood and of plywood is needed to 10 pounds of force to get the cart moving. Once it was moving, only 5 pounds of force was required to keep the cart in motion. Example #2: A manual pallet jack was loaded with various weights and the push/pull force to initiate movement of the pallet jack was as follows, based on the weight load: 240# required 10# of force The deformed metal is exerting an equal and opposite force on each of the rolls to satisfy the equilibrium conditions. Therefore, this force normal to the direction of rolling is important factor considered for designing of the rolls and mill body. This force (F) is also important in determining the power consumption in a rolling process Description. The Rolling Resistanceblock models the resistance force that acts on the wheel hub due to the rolling resistance at the road-wheel contact surface.The block can use a constant resistance coefficient or the pressure and velocity dependence of the SAE J2452 standard. The resistance force is zero when the normal force acting at the wheel-road surface is less than or equal to zero For basic calculations, we can assume that the rolling motion is purely about the x axis. It that's the case, we can estimate the maximum sustained roll rate by looking at a simple roll moment balance. In general, the roll moment equation of motion is given by: (36 Draw Force. Use this quick bending calculator tool to input material type and thickness, die and punch parameters, and overall bending length. (Check out the quick reference press brake tonnage chart). Then press a button and the exact tonnage is revealed to process a 90 degree air bend. Other parameters are also revealed automatically The component of the friction force is to be equal to or greater than the horizontal component of the normal force. Rolling pressure which is a useful quantity for characterizing the mechanics of the rolling process. It is the average normal stress, pressure, acting between the work piece and roll. The pressure is not constant since the stress. The ratio λ = [ a/Lp] = [a/√R.∆t] is used to calculate the moment arm 'a' λ =0.5 for hot rolling and 0.45 for cold rolling. The torque is equal to the product of total rolling load and the effective moment arm. Since there are two work rolls Torque Mt = 2P.a Consider two high roll mill as shown in the figure DISCLAIMER: Actual drawing force hydraulic press calculations are affected by many factors such as friction between the material and the die, material thickness, material strength variations, rolling direction of the steel, work hardening, die lubrication, speed of draw, cushion pressure required and other parameters.This estimate calculates a preliminary value to be used for initial machine.

### Rolling resistance — Science Learning Hu

• Normal Force in Rolling Friction. by Ron Kurtus (15 November 2016) The normal force in rolling friction is the perpendicular force pushing the wheel to the surface on which it is rolling. It is an essential part of the standard rolling friction equation. Situations include a wheel rolling on a plane surface, a wheel with an axle on a plane surface, and a wheel acting as a roller between two.
• The unstable rolling force will lead to the low surface quality of the sheet, cause thermal cracking and plate breakage, and even affect the internal structure of the sheet [4-5]. Only a stable control of the rolling force can make the casting process go smoothly, so a rolling force calculation model must be established
• Dr. Dmitri Kopeliovich Rolling is a process of reduction of the cross-sectional area or shaping a metal piece through the deformation caused by a pair of rotating in opposite directions metal rolls.. A scheme of rolling process is shown in the picture: The gap between the rotating rolls is less than the thickness of the entering bar H 0 therefore a friction force is necessary in order to bite.
• Rolling on Inclined Plane. Let us assume a round object of mass m and radius R is rolling down an inclined plane without slipping as shown in Figure 5.37. There are two forces acting on the object along the inclined plane. One is the component of gravitational force (mg sin θ) and the other is the stati
• rolling resistance equations. At the present time, these coefficients may be obtained from some tire manufacturers, with the method described by Gordon, et al. (4), or by rolling the wheelchair over a force platform. The force platform technique involves pushing a wheel- chair, loaded with at least . 50 kg, over a force platform s

### Be safe out there Part 2: How to calculate resistance for

• To calculate wind load using the generic formula, use F = A × P × Cd, where F is the force or wind load, A is the projected area of the object, P is the wind pressure, and Cd is the drag coefficient. First find A, the area of the 2-dimensional face the wind is hitting, using A = length × height for a flat wall
• on strip surfaces. (c) Roll force, F, and torque, T, acting on the rolls. The width of the strip, w, usually increases during rolling The Flat-rolling Process The rolls pull the material into the roll gap through a net frictional force on the material. Thus, the net frictional force must be to the right . A metal strip of thickness h
• F RR is the rolling resistance force.; P RR is the power needed to counter rolling resistance.; C RR is the coefficient of rolling resistance (typically between 0.003 and 0.008 depending on tyres and the road surface). A higher number indicates more resistance. m is the mass of the rider plus bike (measured in kilograms - kg). g = 9.8 (multiplying mass by 9.8 gives the weight, which is the.
• Roll separating force is the main goal in calculations in N/mm They are related in all mathematical models Roll pressure varies over the surface Proportional Increased with reduction Roll separating force is used in calculating other quantities Friction, entry thickness and strain hardening coefficient increase both of the
• What is the purpose of this calculator? The purpose of this calculator is to help users assess forceful exertion during push, pull, or carry tasks. Using excessive force during these tasks can cause musculoskeletal injury. In conjunction with this calculator, what information should I look at to assess the risks of pushing, pulling, or carrying      I want to ask about the direction of frictional force in smooth rolling motion which means the rolling object doesn't slide on the surface. Here is the first case, the wheel rolls to the right so the rotation is clockwise. At the point P, velocity is zero. To make the wheel rolls faster, it bottom must rotate to the left faster and the. 354 G. Bureika, Š. Mikaliūnas. Research on the compatibility of the calculation methods of rolling-stock brakes t e - equivalent build-up time for braking force, s; v nom - nominal initial speed in the test, m/s; d test - mean wheel diameter on the vehicles tested, mm Calculation of Brake Force Data for Rolling Stock Library Synopsis. This Railway Group Standard defines the method of calculating the brake force data for inclusion in the Rolling Stock Library. Summary Of Changes. Superseded by GMRT2045 Iss 4. Read full standard. Registered. Withdraw You can calculate weight by multiplying the mass by gravity. An object's weight is different on other planetary bodies where the gravity varies. But, the object will always retain the same mass. Force. Force is the push and/or pull acting on an object. A force acting on an object makes the object move, accelerate, stop, slow, or change direction